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Dr.Armughan Riaz
M.B.B.S, Dip Card
Consultant Cardiologist


Complications of High Blood pressure during Pregnancy Preeclamsia Complications

HELLP syndrome, strok, eclampsia, kidney, eye, heart and lung problems are complications of high blood pressure during pregnancy.

Complications of High Blood pressure during Pregnancy Preeclamsia Complications

preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) is a serious condition that must be monitored and treated to avoid complications. While preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) affects only about five percent to eight percent of pregnancies in the United States, it is one of the top three causes of maternal death. About 1 out of 100,000 pregnant women die after having some form of complications from this disease. Most women with preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) deliver healthy babies. The more severe your preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) and the earlier it occurs in your pregnancy, however, the greater the risks for you and your baby.

Complications of preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) may include:

Lack of blood flow to the placenta. preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) affects the arteries carrying blood to the placenta. If the placenta doesn't get enough blood, the baby may receive less oxygen and nutrients. This can lead to slow growth, low birth weight, preterm birth or stillbirth.

Placental abruption. preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) increases the risk of placental abruption, in which the placenta separates from the inner wall of the uterus before delivery. Severe abruption can cause heavy bleeding, which can be life-threatening for both mother and baby.

HELLP syndrome. HELLP — which stands for hemolysis (the destruction of red blood cells), elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count — syndrome can rapidly become life-threatening for both mother and baby. Symptoms of HELLP syndrome include nausea and vomiting, headache and upper right abdominal pain. HELLP syndrome is particularly dangerous because it can occur before signs or symptoms of preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) appear. You can get heavy bleeding (haemorrhage) too. H stands for haemolysis (red cells in your blood burst), EL stands for elevated liver enzymes (a sign of liver damage) and LP stands for low platelets (platelets are tiny particles that help your blood to clot).

Eclampsia. When preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) isn't controlled, eclampsia — which is essentially preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension) plus seizures — can develop. Symptoms of eclampsia include upper right abdominal pain, severe headache, vision problems and change in mental status, such as decreased alertness. Eclampsia can permanently damage a mother's vital organs, including the brain, liver and kidneys. Left untreated, eclampsia can cause coma, brain damage and death for both mother and baby.

Stroke: A stroke caused by a blood vessel bursting in the brain. This type of stroke is most likely to happen if you have very high blood pressure and drugs don't work to bring it down.

Moreover you may have following Pre-eclampsia complications

Kidney problems. Your kidneys may not work properly. Or they may just stop working. But they should get better on their own after you have your baby.3 
Eye problems. You can lose your eyesight, but this is temporary. 
Heart problems. These include heart attack and heart failure. 
Lung problems. One of these problems is that fluid builds up in your lungs. Doctors call that pulmonary oedema.

To avoid such complications it is necessary to control your blood pressure during pregnancy.


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