HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SYMPTOMS CAUSES DIET & TREATMENT

Dr.Armughan Riaz
M.B.B.S, Dip Card
Consultant Cardiologist

 

Causes Of Low Blood Pressure

Complete list of causes and reasons of low blood pressure and hypotension.

Causes Of Low Blood Pressure

 If you are an athlete you may have low blood pressure, you don't need to worry about this as it is a natural phenomenon. But in some cases and conditions low blood pressure can be life threatening.

The American Heart Association considers the following list of causes as possible reasons of low blood pressure:

    * Pregnancy. During pregnancy Women's circulatory system expands and there are chances that blood pressure will drop during pregnancy. During first 24 weeks of pregnancy there are chances that both systolic and diastolic blood pressure drop by 10-15 mm of Hg.
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Medications. Many drugs are known to cause low blood pressure specially drugs that are used by hypertensive patients like diuretics, ACE inhibitors, Beta blockers, Alpha blockers, Calcium channel blockers; drugs for Parkinson's disease like tricyclic antidepressants; Drugs for impotence like sildenafil (Viagra), particularly in combination with nitrates; narcotics; and alcohol can also decrease Blood pressure. Some drugs have drug interaction, when these are taken in combination with other medications used to treat high blood pressure, can decrease blood pressure.
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Heart problems. Bradycardia, Arrhythmias, Myocardial infarction, Congestive heart failure, valvular heart diseases, pericardial temponade can lead to decrease blood pressure. These conditions may cause low blood pressure heart is unable to pump blood to body.
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Endocrine problems. Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism can both lead to low blood pressure. In addition, other endocrine problems, such as adrenal insufficiency Addison's disease, low blood glucose (hypoglycemia), and in some cases diabetes mellitus can low down blood pressure.
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Dehydration. In dehydration body water loss is more as compared to water intake. Even if you have mild dehydration it can lead to weakness, dizziness and fatigue. Diarrhea, Fever, vomiting, diuretics excessive use, vigorous exercise can all lead to dehydration. Life threatening complication of dehydration is hypovolumic shock. Low blood volume causes sudden drop in blood pressure and tissues are not supplied with proper oxygen. If untreated, it can lead to death within a few minutes or hours.
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Blood loss. Blood loss can be external like from traumatic injury or may be internal bleed. Both conditions can lead to hypovolumic shock and low blood pressure.
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Severe infection (septicemia). Septicemia is the infection of the blood when infected agent enters our blood. Septicemia is usually seen in lung, abdomen and urinary track infections. These infections and septicemia can lead to a life-threatening drop in blood pressure called septic shock.
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Allergic reaction Like anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is type 1 hypersensitive reaction, a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. Anaphylaxis can occur by certain foods medicines insect bites. Anaphylaxis can cause drop in blood pressure. Drop in blood pressure in anaphylaxis is due to dilatation of blood vessels.
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Nutritional deficiencies. Vitamins B-12 and Iron deficiency can cause anemia a condition in which your body doesn't produce enough red blood cells and hemoglobin. Tissues will not get enough oxygen and in anemia you can also have low blood pressure.

Postural hypotension will be discussed separately.

Low blood pressure cases are not usually considered as medical problem, however if low blood pressure is accompanied by other symptoms, physician should always rule out any underlying pathology and disease.



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