High Blood Pressure Symptoms Causes Diet Treatment

Because it matters…Heart disease awareness


Dr.Armughan Riaz
M.B.B.S, Dip Card
Consultant Cardiologist


11 FAQ about High Blood Pressure

Answers to your frequently asked questions about high blood pressure, in medical terminology called as hypertension.

11 FAQ about High Blood Pressure

Answers to your frequently asked questions about high blood pressure, in medical terminology called as hypertension.

1. What are Causes of High Blood Pressure?
Specially in essential hypertension we dont see any cause of high blood pressure,  however a variety of conditions -- such as getting little or no exercise, poor diet, obesity, older age, and genetics  can lead to high blood pressure.

2. What Is Diastolic and systolic Blood Pressure?
Normally, the blood pressure reading is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is written as systolic pressure, the force of the blood against the artery walls as your heart beats or contracts, over diastolic pressure, when the heart relaxes.  For example, a blood pressure reading is written as 13/80 mm Hg, or "130 over 80". The systolic pressure is 130 and the diastolic pressure is 80.

3. What Is a Normal Blood Pressure value?

The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure has classified blood pressure measurements into several categories:

    * "Normal" blood pressure is systolic pressure less than 120 and diastolic pressure less than 80. mmHg
    * "Prehigh blood pressure" is systolic pressure of 120-139 or diastolic pressure of 80-89. mmHg
    * Stage 1 high blood pressure is blood pressure greater than systolic pressure of 140-159 or diastolic pressure of 90-99 mmHg or greater.
    * Stage 2 high blood pressure is systolic pressure of 160 or greater or diastolic pressure of 100 or greater.

4. What Health Complications are Associated With high blood pressure?

Several potentially serious health conditions are linked to high blood pressure, including:

    * Atherosclerosis: a disease of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque, or fatty material, on the inside walls ( Endothelium )of the blood vessels . high blood pressure contributes to this buildup by putting added stress and force on the artery walls causing endothelial injury.
    * Stroke CVA or Transient Ischaemic attacks: high blood pressure can lead to stroke, either by contributing to the process of atherosclerosis (which can lead to blockages and/or clots), or by weakening the blood vessel wall and causing it to rupture called as cerebral haemmorhage.
    * Eye Disease: high blood pressure can damage the very small blood vessels in the retina.
 * Heart Disease: High bllod pressure is most common cause of left heart failure. heart failure (the heart can't adequately pump blood), ischemic heart disease (the heart tissue doesn't get enough blood), and hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart) are all associated with high blood pressure.
    * Kidney Disease: high blood pressure can damage the blood vessels and filters in the kidneys, so that the kidneys cannot excrete waste properly.

5. How Do I Know if I Have high blood pressure?

high blood pressure often doesn't have any symptoms that is why called as silent killer, so you usually don't feel it. For that reason, high blood pressure is usually diagnosed by a health care professional on a routine medical checkup. This is especially important if you have a close relative who has high blood pressure or embody risk factors for it. If your blood pressure is extremely high which is also called as Malignant hypertension, you may have unusually strong headaches, chest pain, and heart failure, or signs and symptoms of strok like paralysis or numbness of arm or feet (especially difficulty breathing and poor exercise tolerance). If you have any of these symptoms, seek treatment immediately.

6. How Is High blood pressure Treated naturally?
High blood pressure treatment usually involves making lifestyle modifications and, if necessary, drug therapy.
Following Lifestyle changes can control blood pressure naturally

    * Regular exercise (such as brisk walking for half hour atleast).
    * Limiting alcohol drinking.
    * Losing weight.
    * Quitting smoking.
    * Eating a healthy diet, such as the DASH diet.
    * Reducing the amount of salt in your diet.

7-What are common medicine for high blood pressure
High blood pressure medications include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs
calcium channel blockers.

8. What Are the Side Effects of High blood pressure Medications?
As is true with any medication, High blood pressure medications have also side effects. Among the most common are the following:

    * Calcium channel blockers: dizziness, trouble breathing, heart rhythm problems palpitation, ankle swelling, constipation.
    * Beta-blockers: dizziness or lightheadedness, decreased sexual ability, drowsiness, low heart rate (Bradycardia).
    * Diuretics: headache, weakness, joint or muscle pain, low potassium blood levels.
    * ACE inhibitors: dry and persistent cough, headache, diarrhea, high potassium blood levels.
    * Angiotensin receptor blockers: fatigue, dizziness or fainting, muscle pain, diarrhea.

9. What Type of Diet Should I Follow if I Have High blood pressure?
A healthy diet, such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop High blood pressure) diet, is very effective at lowering high blood pressure. The DASH diet calls for a certain number of daily servings from various food groups, including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
The following steps can also help:

    * Eating less red meat and sweets
    * Eating foods that are high in magnesium, potassium, and calcium
    * Eating more fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods
    * Eating less of foods that are high in saturated fat and cholesterol, such as fried foods
    * Eating more whole grain products, fish, poultry, and nuts

10. When Should I Call My Doctor?
If you are diagnosed with High blood pressure, it's important to consult your doctor on a regular basis. He can answer your questions during these medical checkup sessions.

However, there may be other times when you may need to speak to your physician like:
  * If you are having any side effects from the blood pressure medication. If this happens, your doctor may wish to adjust the dosage of the medication or put you on another medication.
 * If you aren't responding to the prescribed treatment and your blood pressure is still high.

11. Are There any Medications that Cause High blood pressure?
Some medications that you take for another condition may cause High blood pressure. These include  birth control pills , migraine medications, cyclosporine and erythropoietin, amphetamines, Ritalin, corticosteroids, hormones, NSAIDs like brufen. Also, many over-the-counter medications (for example, allergy, cold and asthma medications and appetite suppressants) can cause High blood pressure.

Just remember, Don't stop taking any prescribed medication, including antihypertensive medication, on your own without talking to your nurse or physicain.


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